Thursday, January 06, 2011

Neatee Koun Khmers: Exploring the notion of failed states

I hope you had a nice break. I took time off from my busy schedule to rest, to relax, and to reflect on what we are doing here in this forum. The year of 2010 went by so fast that although we started this forum in November, it seems like it was yesterday. In fact it has been a few weeks already since we last discussed. The concept of political institutions was complex, but we managed to generate some substantive and heartfelt discussions. As we continue to reflect on various ideas and concepts, I hope that we can see both the flaws and the goodness of our people, our leaders, and our political system. My hope is that we continue to share, to care, and to learn.
I am excited about 2011. There are more ideas and concepts we will be exploring together. If time and circumstance permit, this year we have to investigate and to explore the concept of ‘Indochina.’ A broad conceptual discussion about Indochina, I hope, will illuminate some of the vexing border issues about which we are constantly debating. Perhaps, the discussion would also enhance our understanding of the January 7th, 1979 Vietnamese invasion as more literature about the event becomes available. We will, of course, pick up other ideas and concepts that happen to come our way.
This week, for example, I could not let the concept of ‘failed states’ goes by without a thorough discussion. When we discussed the concept of political institutions, one of the participants used the term “fail[ed] state” in one of his/her comments. The concept is important because it has both domestic and international implications. Currently, the Foreign Policy website ranks Cambodia 42nd with the score of 88.7 along with Laos and Rwanda in the Failed States Index.
Brown (2009) explained, “A score of 120, the maximum, means that a society is failing totally by every measure” (p. 20). The Failed States Index aggregates a country’s score from 12 different indicators: Demographic Pressures, Refugees/IDPs, Group Grievance, Human Flight, Uneven Development, Economic Decline, Delegitimization of the State, Public Services, Human Rights, Security Apparatus, Factionalized Elites, and External Intervention.
How do you feel about the future prospect of Cambodia? Or how do you feel about the labeling? What should we do as a nation to improve its condition? Or should we pay attention to this scoring system at all? Please share your perspective.
There is a proliferation of literature on the notion of failed states; however, this article relies on a selected few to give us enough content for our discussion. Although there is a consensus among scholars when it comes to a conceptual definition, the lenses through which each drew his/her analysis give us a broad perspective of the concept. While Manjikian (2008) along with Boas and Jennings (2007) suggest that the concept exists in part to serve Western interests, Brown (2009) views the concept with the focus of global stability and environmental impacts. Furthermore, Kraxberger (2007) adds a dimension to the concept by using Gros’ typology of dysfunctional states to enhance our understanding while Bilgin and Morton (2004) provide us with a distinction between ‘failed and rouge’ states. Finally, Jones (2008) argues that the formulation of the concept which is being accepted in academic and by politicians is flawed.
On the one hand, Manjikian (2008) who critically diagnoses the concept from a medical perspective argued that essentially the labeling of nations as failed states serves a dominant power relationship between the well states and sick states; therefore, the sick state has no voice and less autonomy in decision making regarding its future its sovereignty.
Current thinking about failed states rests on Realist assumptions that a state is essentially about power. A state “fails” when it lacks control over its population and its territory and when it fails to possess a monopoly on the legitimate use of force. The website for the Foreign Policy Institute includes the following indicators in its assessment of the state’s overall health: extensive corruption and criminal behavior, inability to collect taxes or otherwise draw on citizen support, large scale involuntary dislocation of the population, sharp economic decline, group-based inequality, institutionalized persecution or discrimination, severe demographic pressures, brain drain, and environmental decay. (Manjikian, 2008, p. 342)

Similarly, Boas and Jennings (2007) argues that the labeling of failed assumes a certain generalization about how all states are supposed to function. The conventional thinking of failed states is closely tied to a view of the modern state system that assumes that all states are essentially alike and function in the same way; that is, states control their borders, have a monopoly on the use of force, and generally supervise the management and regulation of economic, social, and political processes. “States considered to be functioning are perceived as legitimate actors and worthy recipients of Western donor assistance, whereas those unable or unwilling to function according to the template tend to be regarded with some suspicion, and/or are assumed to represent a security threat to the Western world” (p. 477).
On the other hand, Brown (2009) who views failed states from an environmentalist perspective argues that failing states present the greatest threat to global order and stability. There is a link between the ranking on the Failed State Index in key demographic and environmental indicators. “Of the top 20 failed states, 17 have rapid rates of population growth, several of them expanding at close to 3 percent a year or 20-fold per century. In 5 of these 17 countries, women have on average more than six children each. In all but 6 of the top 20 failed states, at least 40 percent of the population is under 15, a demographic statistic that often signals future political instability” (p. 20). Here is an interesting observation of failed states:
States fail when national governments lose control of part or all of their territory and can no longer ensure the personal security of their people. When governments lose their monopoly on the power, the rule of law begins to disintegrate. When they can no longer provide basic services such as education, health care, and food security, they lose their legitimacy. A government in this position may no longer be able to collect enough revenue to finance effective governance. Societies can become so fragmented that they lack of the cohesion to make decisions. (Brown, 2009, p. 18)
Scholars further suggest that leadership decisions and leadership failure have a great deal to do with the failure of a state, ‘State failure is man-made, not merely accidental nor – fundamentally – caused geographically, environmentally, or externally. Leadership decisions and leadership failures have destroyed states and continue to weaken the fragile polities that operate on the cusp of failure’ (as cited in Bilgin & Morton, 2004, p. 171).
Before looking at a distinction between ‘rouge’ and ‘failed’ states, let us review Gros’ typology of dysfunctional states. Here are the types of dysfunctional states:
[Gros] identified five types of dysfunctional states: ‘anarchic’ states, such as Somalia, which lack a central government; ‘phantom’, or ‘mirage’, states, such as Congo (formerly Zaire), which exercise only a semblance of central authority and can manage just a few core tasks (such as protecting the president and his circle); ‘anemic’ states, which are enervated by an insurgency or where, as in Haiti, ‘the engines of modernity were never put in place’; ‘captured’ states, such as Rwanda, where a strong centralized authority has been taken over by an insecure elite that is primarily concerned with defending itself against rival elites; and ‘aborted’ states, such as Angola, which failed before they were ever consolidated. (as cited in Kraxberger, 2007, p.1058).
A distinction between ‘failed’ and ‘rouge’ state is subtle but profound.One major difference is that whereas the notion of a ‘failed’ state refers to internal characteristics, ‘rogue’ states are labeled as such because of their (anti-Western) foreign policy outlook. Another crucial difference is that whereas ‘failed states’ are considered a cause for concern when they come closer to the brink of collapse (such as Somalia), ‘rogue’ states are viewed as directly threatening international order and stability (as with Iraq and North Korea)” (Bilgin & Morton, 2004, p. 170).
Finally, Jones (2008) cautions that there are flawed in the analysis, the categorization of the failed states, and the associated terminology that widely accepted in academic and by politicians. The notion of failed states appears to use in the characterization of specific conditions of crisis in the Third World. “Yet the analytical and explanatory basis of the concept is profoundly flawed. The use of such a category by politicians is not surprising; what is remarkable is the way this notion has been so readily absorbed in academic analysis with little concern or critical reflection” ( p. 181). The analysis of failed states has to encapsulate a historical context that gives rise to a nation’s current power structure and social condition.

…The significance of the ‘failed state’ discourse lies not simply in its lack of explanatory power. This discourse, in persistently mis-characterizing social conditions and mis-identifying their causes, serves to legitimize and reproduce the very imperial qualities of international order which lie at the heart of socalled ‘state failure’. It remains to highlight this ideological character of the ‘failed states’ discourse and its relationship to imperialism. (p. 197)
In closing, I am glad our discussion lands itself with this topic. The concept of failed states is important because it provides us a framework to evaluate a state of a nation. Where a nation is in the index has domestic and international implications. A nation not only can use the indicators as tools to design and to improve its domestic policies, but it can also use its position in the index to gage where it stands among international communities.
While scholars and analysts continue to debate the merit of the concept, the differences between the ‘well states’ and ‘failed states’ are real and drastic. For example, the holidays gave many in the well states (developed nations) a short break from work or from whatever they were doing to spend time with our love ones. Life is basically good. For many who live in what is deemed as failed states, the holidays were just ordinary days. The struggle to have basic needs continues; the thirst for freedom endures; and the resiliency to live with human dignity perseveres.
As time takes us to the beginning a new decade, the realization that all of us are getting older appears surreptitiously in our consciousness. My hope is that the Epiphany makes us wiser, encourages us to change our ways, and ushers us to a brand new direction-- a direction in which we are more reflective of our words and our deeds; we have more tolerance and understanding for each other; and we have the courage to look for common ground to work together regardless of our differences because the cost of repeating the past mistakes of not working together is far too great for all. On behalf of KI media team, Happy New Year to all Koun Khmers!!! This is my perspective; please share yours.
Bilgin, P., & Morton, A. (2004). From ‘Rogue’ to ‘Failed’ States? The Fallacy of Short-termism *. Politics, 24(3), 169-180.
Boas, M., & Jennings, K. (2007). 'Failed States' and 'State Failure': Threats or Opportunities?. Globalizations, 4(4), 475-485.
Brown, L. B. (2009). Plan B 4.0: mobilizing to save civilization. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company
Jones, B. (2008). The global political economy of social crisis: Towards a critique of the 'failed state' ideology. Review of International Political Economy, 15(2), 180-205.
Kraxberger, B. M. (2007). Failed states: temporary obstacles to democratic diffusion or fundamental holes in the world political map? Third World Quarterly, 28(6), 1055-1071.
Manjikian, M. (2008). Diagnosis, Intervention, and Cure: The Illness Narrative in the Discourse of the Failed State. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 33(3), 335-357.


ជនពាល said...

នៅប្រទេសណាក៏ដោយ ភាពប្រទាញប្រទង់គ្នា រវាងបក្សកាន់អំណាច និងបក្សប្រឆាំង គឺតែងតែកើតមានឡើង ។ ទោះបីជានៅប្រទេសបានអភិវឌ្ឍន៍ជឿនលឿនហើយក្ដី គឺគេតែងតែសង្កេតឃើញថា បក្សប្រឆាំងតែងតែលើកឡើង នូវចំណុចអវិជ្ជមានរបស់រដ្ឋាភិបាលមួយចំនួន ក្នុងករណីពីរយ៉ាង ១៖ ស្ថាបនាឬរំលឹកដាស់តឿន ២៖ កេងចំណេញផ្នែកនយោបាយ ។ តែនៅកម្ពុជាវិញ មហិច្ឆតារបស់គ្រប់បក្សនយោបាយ គឺពួកគេចូលចិត្តប្រើនូវវិធីមួយដែលខ្មែរយើងហៅថា ត្រីងៀតឆ្លៀតពង ។ ពោល គឺបន្តុះបង្អាប់គូបដិបក្ស ដើម្បីលើកខ្លួនឯង ។

Anonymous said...

Hun Manet has billion of US dollar it is not hard for him to get into Military school or PhD.

But the question is can him demontrate his ability to get Kos Trol and sea that have been lost by his Father? If he can than he is well educated man and deserve the star. Otheriwise as North Korea from father to son to grandson.

Hun Manet if you are a truely man with honor why don't you get Kos Trol and sea back from vietnam and Thailand to Cambodia? Show us your real ability to defence Cambodia man. Show us that your PhD and military skill from US and Bristan is worth saving Cambodia Man!

Hun Manet also show that you can make Cambodia developed like US and England man!

Anonymous said...

Happy New Year Koun Khmer:~)

"fail-state", let me take one small part of your quote and try to look at the current situation of Cambodia.
" A state “fails” when it lacks control over its population and its territory and when it fails to possess a monopoly on the legitimate use of force"

- First, HS does not "lacks control over its population" - he control the entire population!

-Second, HS never "fails to posses a monopoly on the legitimate use of force" - he has planty of that...for example when HS side the power through coup d'etate 1997!,

given the above two examples - does Cambodia still consider a "fail-state"?

Anonymous said...

Thanks KOun Khmer, SRP always have somethings to criticise, in globle success either in business or in politice or in organization, criticising was the cheapest commondity on eath, why stupid Sam rainsy try to benifite from that, it only attract ignorance peolpe to you Rainsy, peole with normale interllect they can see it, I ask you Rainsy to stope your critict stratergy, you looke down to yourslfe, you are very cheap human minnery. soooooo stupid all Ransy teams.

Anonymous said...

Cambodia is a failed start. NO matter how much Money or help it get. The Leader Hun Sen and high official has failed US as a Khmer Citizen for ours country to be like it is today. Corruption! and failed to educated it people

Anonymous said...

A Ph.D. never in a war.

-Can he fight for Cambodian Border from Vietnam?

This Ph.D is in the War of $-Billion Dollar from the Poor.

Anonymous said...

simply put, without a rule of law, its enforcement, education, etc, that's a failed state! again, better education and access to education is the one of the key, if not the only way.

Anonymous said...

to all idiotice SRP always have somethings to criticise, in globle success either in business or in politice or in organization, criticising was the cheapest commondity on eath, why stupid Sam rainsy try to benifite from that, it only attract ignorance peolpe to you Rainsy, peole with normale interllect they can see it, I ask you Rainsy to stope your critict stratergy, you looke down to yourslfe, you are very cheap human minnery. soooooo stupid all Ransy teams.

Anonymous said...

a failed state has many faces to it. in my opinion, not putting the right person for the job of leading the country in the right direction contributed greatly to its failure. so, make sure th requirements for leadership is strict and higher than normal and extract the best of the best to do so. reforms can help to change this status to a well state.

Anonymous said...

12:17 am,

I agreed with you, but in order for that to come above, we need to strenghten our institution and enforcement...nobody should be above the law!Prime Minister term limit!

How about HS move to put his son in the military possition - isn't this a signal to hold on to power for a long time to come?

Military should not be use like a personal trop to protect only the HS clant!

Anonymous said...

no, not necessary, his son, mr. hun manet was qualified on his own right e.g. his west point military education, his demeanor for leadership capability, etc, etc... let's stop assume that it's corruption by playing favoritism, nepotism, etc..., not always true. we have to look at his qualification. the son and the father are not necessary the same kind of people like we like to think they are. his parents give him birth, but manet went on with his life by better himself with education, etc... of course, we it is smart and wise to learn from your family, your friends, your professor, your teachers, strangers, your enemies, your neighbors, etc, etc... because knowledge is not own by anybody, it's a shared concept and thus know no boundary. that's the difference. cambodia needs more capable individual like hun manet, young, western educated, smart, intelligent with potential to lead our armed forces, etc... the only thing is i hope that he's not going to cling on to top positon without regards to the law. the law should stipulate that any person who is qualified in their own right may run in gov't job, etc, and shouldn't be because of family connection, etc... the key is qualified in his/her own right! that's the difference. also, what maybe true or practiced in the past, does't necessarily have to be brought to the present, or it wouldn't be reformed at all. please understand the difference and wait and see first, instead of feeling doubtful already without the benefit of the doubt, etc!

Anonymous said...

1:04 AM,

It would be nice if the government can demonstrate transparency.

What was the nomination process?

How and who involved in the process?

Was any else besides Manet was considered?

Who initiate the domination?

What are his qualifications and experiences?

These some of the fundamental questions to ensure that the process is fair.

Anonymous said...


I think you have the answer to that as well - no neet for others to spell out!

Beside HS norminate directly or indirectly....who in the rights mind would this 32 yrs old a two stars? People pay million to get that one star and bowl like a dog...

How much are we going to give to Hun Manet to promote change in the military system? one year, two years? or five years time fram? I think two years is good enough to start to see some change...otherwise he will be a doom dog to his father!

Anonymous said...

សេចក្តីសម្ភាស លោក សយ សុភាព នឹង សម្តេចតេជោហ៊ុនសែន
ថ្ងៃ ធ្វើអ្វីៗក៍ខុសឆ្បាប់អង្គការនេះដែរ ដូចជាខ្ញុំដកដីឱ្យយួនធ្វើផ្ទះនៅ ហើយខ្ញុំថាឱ្យក្រុមហ៊ុនយួនធ្វើចំការកៅស៊ូ ដើម្បីបំពេញបំណងចៅវាយខ្ញុំ ក៏ខុស ដកដីបឹងកក់លក់ឱ្យគេដើម្បី កសាងទីក្រុង ក៏ខុស
កូនចៅខ្ញុំ​ ចាប់អាម្នាក់ដែលវាផ្ដិតរូបខ្ញុំថាក្បត់នៅ ក្នុងទំព័រ ខេអាយ ហើយតុលាកាកាត់ទោសដាក់គុកភ្លាមៗ​ ខ្ញុំក៏ខុស ចៅវាយខ្ញុំគេឃើញដូច្នេះ គេ​អាណិតខ្ញុំគេក៏បញ្ជាឱ្យបិតអង្គការនេះចោលទៅ គឺនៅខែមករា ឆ្នាំ២០១២ ធ្វើម្តេចជួយមិនបាន​ទេ ។ បើទុកនៅ ថ្ងៃក្រោយមុខជាពិបាកធ្វើអ្វីៗនឹងដកយកដីឱ្យបងប្អូនយួនទៀតហើយ ព្រោះយួនគេនៅជិតពេញហើយក្នុងបឹងទន្លេសាប​ បើមិនជឿទេសុំបងប្អូនអញ្ជើញទៅមើលចុះ ពួកគេពូកែចាប់ត្រីណាស់រកតែត្រីកើតកូនក៏មិនទាន់ដែរ។
សុភាព=បាទៗ សម្តេចបិទទៅ ពីថ្ងៃនោះតទៅគ្មានសិទ្ធិមនុស្សឥទៀតទេ។ហើយខ្ញុំសុំអរគុណសម្តេច ម្ដងទៀត ដែលព្រៀនប្រដៅថាកុំឱ្យទៅកោរ
សក់នៅទល់ដែនយួននោះ ព្រោះធ្វើម្តេចខ្ញុំហ៊ានបើសម្តេចចក្ក្រី ​ហេង សំរិន អស់ទាំងភូមិរបស់គាត់ ហើយគាត់មិនហ៊ាននិយាយផង ខ្ញុំគ្រាន់តែហាមាត់ថាយួ*******ក៏ពុំហ៊ានដែរ ខ្ញុំជានាក់កាសែតតូចមួយពុំហ៊ានទេ សុំអរគុណ សម្តេច។
តេជោ=អញ្ចឹងល្អហើយ ឯងដឹងទេ ប្រទេសយើងកុំតែបាន អង្គការសហប្រជាជាតិ​ កុំអីយើងក៏មិនបានរីកចម្រើនដូច្នេះដែរ ព្រោះតាំងពីគេចូលមក គេជួយយើងប្រហែល មួយប៊ីលល្យុងដុល្លាក្នុងមួយឆ្នាំៗ​ ហើយខ្ញុំអាចខ្លាយជាម្ចាស់បង់​ អេស៊ីលីដា បានយ៉ាងស្រួល។
សុភាព=មែនហើយសម្តេចមានជាង សាដាំហ៊ូសេនទៅទៀត​ ហើយអំ
ណាចក៏លើសសាដាំហ៊ូសេនសិបដងដែរ តិចគេថាដល់ត្រើយសើយគូថទេដឹង ហើយសម្តេចមិនខ្លាចអង្គកា
តេជោ=ចៅវាយខ្ញុំប្រាប់ថា បើគេខឹងនឹងខ្ញុំក៏គេមិនខឹងនឹងប្រជាជន
ខ្មែរដែរ ហើយបើអត់អីស៊ីក៏ពួកខ្ញុំមិនអត់ឯណា គឺប្រជាជនទេ ដែលអត់នោះ ដូច្នេះខ្ញុំជឿថា
គេមិនបោះបង់ប្រជាជនក្រីក្រខ្មែរចោលទេ។ ចំពោះតេជោខ្ញុំមិនខ្លាច យូអិន ឯណា តែកាលពីមុន ខ្ញុំគ្រាន់តែភ័យខ្លះទេ បានជាទៅផ្ដឹង យូអិន ឱ្យជួយនោះ នៅពេលដែល
អាសៀមវាចង់វ៉ៃយើង ព្រោះបើវាវ៉ៃម៉ែននោះ ខ្សែរហ៊ុនខ្ញុំរលាយអស់វិញហើយ។
សុភាព=បាទៗ វាមិនហ៊ានវ៉ៃទេសម្តេច ហើយបើសម្តេច បិតអង្គការនេះចោល​នោះវានឹងគ្មាននាក់ណាហ៊ាន ថាសម្តេចខុសទៀតទេ ចុះវើលហ៊ូតវាយ៉ាងណាដែរសម្តេច?
តេជោ=តាមពិតវើលហ៊ូតវាគ្មានខុសអីទេ ខ្ញុំឃើញវាច្រឡំខ្ញុំក៏សំឡុត
វាលេងទៅ មានឯណាគាត់សុំទោសខ្ញុំញរមាត់។ ខ្ញុំដឹងថាប្រជាជនយើងកុំ​តែបានអង្គការនេះកុំអីពិបាកធំហើយ មកពីគាត់អត់ដីធ្វើស្រែទេ ព្រោះខ្ញុំបានដកដីខ្លះចែកទៅបងប្អូន ចៅវាយខ្ញុំ ដែលមកនៅជាមួយខ្ញុំដើម្បីជួយបោះឆ្នោតឱ្យខ្ញុំ។ហើយអង្ករដែលខ្ញុំថា ឱ្យទៅគេនោះគេមិន បានយកទៅណាទេ គេទុកចែកក្នុងស្រុក យើងនេះទេ ហើយថ្ងែមុនគេ ខ្វះគេដឹកមក មួយកាប៉ាល់ថែមទៀតផង ។
សុភាព=បាទសម្តេច ខ្ញុំក៏គិតថាអញ្ចឹងដែរ ចុះថ្ងៃមុនហេតុដូចម្តេច បានជា មានការចាំបាច់លើករឿងបញ្ហាគ្រួសារសម្តេច យកមកប្រកាសប្រាប់ មហាជនដូច្នេះ?
បន្តរនៅថ្ងៃក្រោយ សុំអរគុណ សុំជូនពរដល់បងប្អូនទីជិតទីឆ្ងាយទាំងអស់ឱ្យ
ជួបតែសេចក្តីសុខនឹងក្តីចម្រើនគ្រប់ប្រការនៅឆ្នាំថ្មីនេះ សុំរីករាយ កុំភ្លេចថ្នមចិត្តគ្រួសារឬសង្សារអ្នក់ណា

Anonymous said...

that's a whole other issue. if hun manet can reform the armed forces, maybe he can introduce it to what he learned from west point. you know the american armed forces is the best in the world when it comes to structure, rules and regulation, professionalism, justice, etc, etc... i hope mr. manet learned from the american armed forces and help to reform cambodian counterpart! all leaders should have their autobiography available to the public they serve. i like to read his personal achievement, his autobiography, especially his education level attained, his qualifications, etc, etc...

Anonymous said...

1:39 AM,

In the U.S. a nomination process includes a hearing in the Senate. The committee grills the nominee on various issues to find his/her philosophy, strategy, and character. The hearing is done publicly.

At the end of the process, we at least know something about the nominee. Although some just answered to get through the process, other really revealed what type person the public going to have.

When someone is going to take a position that could impact millions, the process should be a bit more rigorous.

I guess Cambodia is not developed yet to have such process. It scores 88.7 in the index -not so bad but has a long way to go.

Anonymous said...

yes, show the public his resume, creditial, etc! all leaders should display their resume, etc, to the public!

Anonymous said...

reform is the key, reform the way leaders are chosen, etc. show the public their resume, no exception!

Anonymous said...

10;17 PM,

Reading this, I think population control refers to population explosion in the way that is out government's control to the point the government can no longer afford health care, education, and security.

The use of force, perhaps, refers to the use of force to protect and secure its citizens, not the kind you mentioned- the use of force gain power.

Just my two cents.

Anonymous said...

Can Cambodia provide basic health care, education, and security for its citizens?

That determine the rank in the index.

Anonymous said...

Keep hoping, folks!

I hope all of you who have faith in Major General Hun Manet to make changes in the Cambodian military and its system are right.

May I be wrong and I don't mind to be wrong!

I don't believe for a moment, but I do hope that Hun Manet will use his experiences and western education to solve some of the problems Cambodia is facing right now such as reforming the military into a professional fighting force with strong and admirable discipline with a pure goal of serving only Cambodia and her people and not serving any particular polical party or individuals in power or themselves as it is now doing.

I think the appointment of Hun Manet indicates very clearly the smartness and the intelligence of Mr. Hun Sen in term of preparing his dynasty to rule Cambodia in the same way as Kim Il Sung did in North Korea.

In the old day this would be a change from the Norodom dynasty to the Hun dynasty. One can say that the Hun dynasty began to take a firm grip on the power in Cambodia in 1985 and by 2011, it feels strong and confident enough to declare in an indirect manner an heir to the real throne of the Kingdom of Cambodia and this heir will take over when the current true King (Mr. Hun Sen) dies or too old to administer the Kingdom.

Democracy in Cambodia is a mean by which to get more aids from the western donors. There has never been a true democracy in Cambodia. The country has always been an autocratic state in which Mr. Hun Sen has an absolute power with the assistance of a more-than-willing and subservient parliament and senate! Mr. Hun Sen also has an indirect support of our strong and powerful neighbour to the east.

What will you do if Mr. Hun Sen loses in the election and refuses to give up the power?

Keep in mind that the military will eventually be in the hand of his son and the Cambodian soldiers, unlike those of the western states, are really Mr. Hun Sen's private instruments to be used or called upon, when necessary, to interven so that Mr. Hun Sen can hang on to power.

I hope I am totally wrong!

Anet Khmer

Anonymous said...

Anet Khmer,

That is an excellent explanation.

Thank you.

Anonymous said...

I think that most of us come to this space know that Cambodian is a "fail-state". Than the question is how are we going above to turn the "fail-state"? I don't want to ask why the "fail-state" come above? But how? As a nation ... where should it start to result this puzzle? Remove Mr. Sen is not an option, becausee he have military - all are under his control! International community? - I don't think so because they give us one chance already. It is not only Cambodia that need help others as well!
Thus, only Cambodian that can help oursleves - no body else? Any suggestion as of to where we should start to deautocracy Cambodia?

Let say that the people themselves should do it!...Will people be able to mobilize enought to over throw the autocracy govt.? or

If there a nonviolence approach to this? or

Another suggestion that one should work with the govt. in order to reform from within the system/institution rather than from outside. Have this strategy has been use? How successful has it been? If not successful - why not?


I remain

Anonymous said...

Hun Sen has more Crimes than any other in Cambodia' history.
His Crime as follows :

1)- Brought Yuon to Invade Cambodia.

2)- Created K-5 plan.(Aprox. 600,000 Killed)

3)- Bombast in front of the old ASS.

4)- Coup D'etat 1997 (Aprox. 13,000 Killed)

5)- Koh Pich Murder (Aprox 400 Killed)
6)- Cut land to Yuon Enemy

All these crimes are enough evidences for International Prosecution.

I ask all khmer to file International lawsuit against Hun Sen for his "Axis of Evil" on Khmer People. And make The CASE "OO4" for KRT. backed by United Nation.

Anonymous said...

6:32 AM,

you seem to depend so much on the intl. community - what does Khmer is of interest to the intl. community? Or to that matter to the US? Major powers were using Cambodia as a procy war - just to test their strenght-out. A few hundreds million $ is nothing to these major power countries. Event Billion! Just look at the US right now - how the American can handle their debt - over 14 trillion $? So solving Cambodia problems will cost very little to them. Just look at the foreign assistant!

Look at foreign doners - how much they give money to Cambodia? Every years, they increase - this event ligit. the Hun's regime! Is it better for the doners to deal with the devil they know better than the devil they don't know!! Isn't everyone that running for an election promise to promote democracy? If the foreigners cannot help Khmers - than who are left to help khmers? Conclusion - Only Khmers can help Khmer themselves to move the nation out of "fail state".....

I would request - stop using foreign to help Khmer any more because every time Khmer do this - the land is getting thing you know - Koun Khmers will have no more land to live on - instead, they will rent their motherland to live on! Think about this!


I remain,

Anonymous said...

10:17 PM
Even though Hun Sen manages to take control of Cambodian population and the use of force, but there are a lot of things that he failed.

1. Youn every where in srok Khmer
2. Border issues (Thai and Vietnam) why he is only concerning about Thai border not Vietnam??
3. The managing of the national assets ( everything is contracted for 99 years ) that including land concession, Ankor Wat, Phnom Borko, Kos Pich, Kos Poss and Beng Kok etc..
4. Unable to control land grabbing from the poor by high ranking official or the rich.
5. Corruptions is every where.
6. Unable to look after it own environment, eg Tonle Sab soon will run out of fish and the rain forest soon will run out of tree.

Fail state or not Cambodian is still one of the corrupted country in the world, one of the worse managing national assets in the world .

Chheam Khmer

Anonymous said...

Failed State is a failed concept. Cambodia is not at war with any country thus it is not a failed state. failed state is a concept use by Western country like the US as a justification to operate with a free hand internationally in what they called "War on terror."

Anonymous said...

To the above comments stupid mother fuckers why your idiots flame everybody that came to checks this news is Som Rainsy. I'm not with any politics parties mother fuckers not likes your always likes to sucks and licks ah Vietcong dicks. I came in here to check this news I wanna know when your stupid regimes gonna stops slave to ah Youn, that all I wants to know causes I loves and cares for my people and my country not like your CPP regimes doesn't cares for anybody but Youn only mother fuckens.

Anonymous said...

OK 8:29 am, this 10:17,

I see you point! I agreed with you! Just like the intl. community close their eyes and accept the election result! As so call "free and fair" election - as long as not many people getting kill during the election! That is good enough for democratic elect govt. in poor country. That is why I said that Khmer cannot depend on intl./foreigners to help Cambodia to move out of "fail-state" - Khmer people have to do it by oursleves!

I remain,

Anonymous said...

Guys How many cambodian girls did Hun Manaet fuck so far in his life? That's must be a lot of beautiful virgin girls that he fucked!

Anonymous said...

8:55 am - what is this have to do with "fail-state"? Does it mean - if men ..... a lot with women - that would lead to "fail-state"....for your own good - pleas go to see doctor to check with your head...because it is all ...up! By the way, I don't think your bellow head has any problems to that matter, but upstare is all...up!

Anonymous said...

9:01AM Thanks for your advice but I'm just wondering that's all.

Anonymous said...

9:04 am,

Your welcome! Next time just make sure you use the right head...don't use the wrong one and aim around in the wrong discussion topic.....

Anonymous said...

this can be a good place to show off constructive idea and anger. happy to see this blog. pls keep going. Cheers for your active and hardwork. vuthy

Anonymous said...

Mr. Hun To killed a lot of cambodians why doesn't he in jail? He is very criminal man. When his time is coming he will lock in hell burn forever. He can't bribe hell at all they don't use currency there.

Anonymous said...


Welcome to Neatee Koun Khmers - hope you will find these topics that have been an honor and dedicate by Koun Khmer to share his scholarly knowledge to share with us. It is indeed an enlighment to us all to meed a fluence scholars such as Koun Khmer and willing dedicate his time for doing research on topics - which is always interesting and educational!

Welcome Vuthy

Anonymous said...

Without a doubt Cambodia is "fail-state"! So who turn Cambodia into a "fail-state."? It is corrupted Cambodian leaders!

The world is changing so fast with no idea and new ways of doing things and Cambodia still have the same old leader with the same old mentality for the past 30years!

Cambodia as a country fail to grow and change and the neighbor countries are advancing light years ahead of Cambodia in economic, military, and politic!

Cambodian people never fail Cambodia and it is the Cambodian leaders who fail Cambodia!!

Anonymous said...

In the eyes of both the West and China, Cambodia is no 'failed state,' nor 'rogue' state. This paper/write-up is irrelevant to current Cambodia.

Anonymous said...

some people live in a cozy feel-good world. They feel entitled to be praised, even when their actions causes great harm to their community and fellow men.

criticism is a mirror into the reality of society. maybe it will do Hun Sen good to accept other people's criticism and his supporters to see what CPP lacks and try to help to develop that short coming instead of raising themselves above criticism.

pull yourself back to earth, you live in a human society, you're not a baby anymore. If you can't accept it go back to your crib and cry like a baby. Otherwise, take it, and improve on what they say you lack and if you can't. Let others do it for you. Just accept your faults and stop feeling too good about yourself. You are stupid, and this world has a lot of smarter people who are more capable then you!

boo hoo hoo! Get over it boy! Oh, sticks and stones can break your bone, but words,... for a little boy, yes words do hurt. But for a man a the fellow commentators on this board, you're adults. So take criticism like one. If not, STFU! and go to your corner and cry!

Anonymous said...

11:26 AM,


Anonymous said...

11:26 AM, you better pull yourself together you drunkard bastard. You one weird mutha fucka SRP!! :)

Anonymous said...

thanks Khmerization your service are respond very fast, love your team, sam rainsy good you stay away, don't go to veit boder, this time, stope help enemy siam, you know that right. war they win on mind, every batle win or lost befor we ever fought, if you don't know I tell you Rainsy, it mean the Thai know they already win, by distroying our alians first, then separate people from our leader, then attack five cities. Siam they felt more confident to win win becaurse you help them to kick veit away form helping Khmer and every day you cirticising Hun sen, that separated Khmer people from our leader, you are good boy Rainsy that Thai said. In warfare people from bottom to the top heve to love and dare to sacrify their live for our leader, that it take to win the war or to survive. it is not joking ladyboy stay away Rainsy and shut your disgusting mouth.

Anonymous said...

11:20 AM,

I thank the writer for presenting a balance view about the concept. It is relevant as long as Cambodia is in the index.

I learn quite a few things from this write up.

Anonymous said...

Sam raisy stay away as far as possible love your, team, sam rainsy good you stay away, don't go to veit boder, this time, stope help enemy siam, you know that right. war they win on mind, every batle win or lost befor we ever fought, if you don't know I tell you Rainsy, it mean the Thai know they already win, by distroying our alians first, then separate people from our leader, then attack five cities. Siam they felt more confident to win win becaurse you help them to kick veit away form helping Khmer and every day you cirticising Hun sen, that separated Khmer people from our leader, you are good boy Rainsy that Thai said. In warfare people from bottom to the top heve to love and dare to sacrify their live for our leader, that it take to win the war or to survive. it is not joking ladyboy stay away Rainsy and shut your disgusting mouth.

Anonymous said...

12:06 PM,

U R one of the very lop 7 san dan!

Anonymous said...

To 12:06PM

Why should SRP officials want to stay away from what? Stay from Viet border? Where the hell is Viet border! Oh! I know just pull out the GPS only to find the Vietcong border posts on Cambodian farmland and Cambodian orchard!

Geez! The fucken Vietcong border posts know how to walk!

Anonymous said...

Cambodia is nowhere similar to Somalia or Haiti, Mr. Scholars...

Don't be doomsdays prophet...

And don't kid yourself that no external power can fail a state. Powerful pressure from big countries can make any state fail or succeed. At this point, no big power wanted to see Cambodia as a failed state.

Cambodia may not be a text-book democracy, bit it is not a threat to any other country, and despite world economic problems, the impact on Cambodia was not terribly worse than its condition from say 5 years ago.

Anonymous said...

cambodia is not a failed state! give me a break! of course, we all wish cambodia could be better in many ways given the stupid KR almost killed off khmer people and destroyed cambodia to almost unrecognizable, etc! cambodia gradually implementing the rule of law in our country. cambodia is not a failed state, so stop fabricating that and stop trying to scare away under-educated investors from investing in cambodia. they say seeing is believing, so true! please all the world good people, come visit my country cambodia. we welcome all the good people of the world. god bless cambodia.

for your information, a failed state looks like afganistan and most other countries in africa,but most definitely not cambodia. go read the world almanac book, ok!

Anonymous said...

Cambodia is nowhere similar to Somalia or Haiti.

Somalia ranks 1st, Haiti ranks 11th,and Cambodia 42nd.

Anonymous said...

You must be delusional to say Haiti or Somalia is better than Cambodia!

Fair and balanced? Yeah, right.

Anonymous said...

labeling cambodia as failed state is irrelevant, however, by discussing or talking about this topic, everyone will understand better what constitutes a failed state, etc! it's part of being informed, i guess!

Anonymous said...

You may need to visit the link to the Foreign Policy website provided by the writer to check the rank.

By the way 1st is the worst, according to the ranking. I just went back and check to make sure that I am not a delusional one. So 42nd is not bad.

You have an interesting comment. I went back and re read the article. I did not see the article states that Cambodia is similar to Somalia or Haiti. It does state it as a mater of fact the it ranks 42nd by the FP.

You must have a preconceived notion about the article before even reading it.

Anonymous said...

12:40 pm,

You are right - koun Khmer wrote this article to inform with scholarly back up of differences that it give a balance view on the topic. I remember from my teacher - he said that you and a drunk person can say exact samething, but what make you different from the drunker is that you are able to back up what you are saying with you an educator is that you are able to back on what you say with data, reputable sources, etc. So as I had said before, Thanks to Koun Khmer that he is willing to pick up the topic and share his scholarship and his training with all of us bloggers, thus, this allow us to learn more and discuss more indeep on the topic and how we can see or apply to the Khmer nation today!

For that,
I remain

Anonymous said...

check the cia world facts on these countries, particularly on the economy, and make your comparison...

It was 12:31 PM who did not have straight facts and was implying that Cambodia ranked below Haiti and Somalia.

Finally, what notion did the article or the poster had in mind?

The intention of informing or educating ought to be clearly stated as to ensure that it did not cross the line to become slanting.

Anonymous said...

1:01 PM,

This 12:31 PM.

I read the article and checked the website. My fact was straight. Somalia ranks 1st and Haiti ranks 11th. I said Cambodia ranks 42nd according the index.

The article also explains that the score of 120 means everything is failed. Cambodia only score 88.7. So it is not so bad. It is not the top 20 which are the worst in the list.

I have been reading this forum before, the author seems to present a neutral position. This is why come back.

It is not slanting. Unless you assume that everyone here is SRP. This assumption could not be further from the truth. All Khmers who interest in news and politics can visit this site and learn.

I wish you are not so defensive.

Koun Khmer said...

Dear 1:00 PM,

Thank you for your kind words as always.

1:01 PM and All,

My intention is to share knowledge and learn together. Obviously, there is a need for such topic for discussion even knowing other educated Khmers will find this boring.

I am motivated by all the comments and your participation here. I am a very busy person. With little time I have, I write such article simply to be part of the learning community. I try to emphasize this point in my writing that I am here to share and learn from my fellow Khmers.

Thank you for your time knowing that you too are busy. We are here because we love our country.

Warm regards,

Koun Khmer

Anonymous said...


សេចក្តីសម្ភាស លោក សយ សុភាព នឹង សម្តេចតេជោហ៊ុនសែន
សុភាព=បាទសម្តេច ខ្ញុំក៏គិតថាអញ្ចឹងដែរ ចុះថ្ងៃមុនហេតុដូចម្តេច បានជា មានការចាំបាច់លើករឿងបញ្ហាគ្រួសារសម្តេច យកមកប្រកាសប្រាប់ មហាជនដូច្នេះ?
តេជោ= គឺខ្ញុំចង់ប្រាប់ថា ទោះជាបងប្អូនកូនក្មួយរបស់ខ្ញុំក៏ដោយក៏គ្មាននាក់
ណា ម្នាក់អាចធ្វើអ្វីខុសឬបំពានបានឡើយ ដើម្បីទុកជាគុំរូដល់កូនលោកឧកញ៉ានឹងកូនលោកធំៗទាំងអស់ ត្រូវតែគោរពច្បាប់។ឯងដឹងហើយ ខ្ញុំមិនដែលបានធ្វើបាបកូនក្មួយ ខ្ញុំទេ? តាមពិតគឺខ្ញុំចង់បានកូនចៅខ្ញុំទាំងអស់បានល្អគ្រប់គ្នា នឹងមានសេចក្តីសុខណាស់។ ខ្ញុំគ្រាន់តែប្រាប់ខ្មួយខ្ញុំថា បើមានស្រីក៏មានទៅ​ ព្រោះវាក៏ដូចខ្ញុំដែរ​ តែវាត្រូវតែចូលផ្ទះ ដើម្បីកុំឱ្យប្រពន្ធវាដើរសម្លាប់គេ​ ដូចលោកជុំទាវធំវាអញ្ចឹង បើសម្លាប់គេៗមុខជាចោទខ្ញុំទៀតហើយ។
សុភាព=បាទសម្តេច ពិតណាស់សម្តេចមិនដែលធ្វើបាបកូនចៅម៉ែន
ដូចជាសម្តេចចាប់មេព្រៃនឹងនាក់កាប់ឈើទាំងនោះ ខ្ញុំគិតថានាក់ទាំងអស់មុខជាពិបាកហើយ តែតាមពិតរួចខ្លួនទាំងអស់។
តេជោ=អើ ឯងដឹងហើយ ខ្ញុំធ្វើយ៉ាងនេះអង្គការពិភពលោកមួយចំនួន
សប្បាយចិត្តណាស់ព្រោះខ្ញុំតេជោ ជានាក់ការពារព្រៃឈើ ដ៏អស្ចារបំផុត។ ហើយនាក់ដែលសប្បាយរីករាយជាងគេបំផុតគឺ ជុំទាវធំនោះឯង គេហុចឱ្យទាំងបាច់ៗហើយ
គាត់ឱ្យគេរួចខ្លួនទាំងអស់ ចំណែកបងប្អូនចៅហ្វាយខ្ញុំគេកាប់អីក៏កាប់ទៅ
ហើយយកអីក៏យកទៅ ឱ្យតែចៅហ្វាយខ្ញុំសប្បាយចិត្ត ជួយមិនបានទេ
កុំបន្ទោសខ្ញុំទៀត ព្រោះភ្នែកខ្ញុំតែម្ខាងមើលឃើញតែខាងលិចទេ ឯម្ខាងទៀតវាខ្វាក់ខ្ញុំមើលមិនឃើញទេខាងកើតនោះ ស្តាប់ក៏មិនឮដែរ។
សុភាព=បាទសម្តេច ហើយកាលពីថ្ងៃមុនសម្តេចបានអញ្ជើញទៅចិន
នៅពេលនោះសម្តេចបានទៅជួបសម្តេចឪ តើទុំនាក់ទុំនងរវាងសម្តេចនឹងសម្តេចឪតើវាយ៉ាងណាដែរ?
តេជោ=ល្អណាស់សំនួរនេះ ចំពោះខ្ញុំដែលទាក់ទងនឹងសម្តេចឪនោះ ព្រោះខ្ញុំនឹកឃើញពីប្រវត្តជាកូននាក់ស្រែម្នាក់ក្រី...ក...រ៉...
សុភាព=បាទសម្តេច ទឹកភ្នែកសម្តេចហូរចេញមកដូចនៅស្ពានពេជ្រ
អញ្ចឹង ដែលនាក់ស្លាប់មានកំហុស ឯនាក់ទទួលខុសត្រូវរួចខ្លួន បាទសម្តេចនេះកូនសន្សែងជូតទឹកនេត្រា។
តេជោ=អរគុណ វាហូរមកមានតែខ្ញុំមិនយុំឯណា តេជោ មិនចេះយុំទេ
អ្វីដែលខ្ញុំចង់និយាយនោះគឺ​ខ្ញុំជាកូននាក់ស្រែម្នាក់ រស់ជាក្មេងវត្ត កាលពេលនោះ ក្បែរវាំងសឹងតែគេមិនឱ្យជិតផង កុំថាជូបសម្តេចឪនោះ ហើយខ្ញុំមិនដែលនឹកគិតថា​បាន​ ធ្វើជារដ្ធមន្ត្រីរួច មានឈ្មោះ ជាសម្តេចហើយជាតេជោ​ ដូច្នេះទេ ជាពិសែសទៅ ទៀតសម្តេចឪបានសំពះអង្វរករខ្ញុំវិញដោយខ្លាចខ្ញុំរំលាយស្ដេចចោល គ្មានទេលើពិភពលោកនេះ មានតែខ្ញុំមែនទេ?
សុភាព=បាទៗពិតហើយមានតែសម្តេចមួយទេ ដែល សម្តេចឪសំពះសម្តេចតេជោ មិនដែលមានម៉ែន។
តេជោ=ខ្ញុំអាណិតគាត់ក៏សម្រេចឱ្យកូនគាត់សោយរាជទៅ ហើយជា ស្តេចមួយអង្គ ដែលខ្ញុំគោរពជាទីបំផុតក្នុងមួយជីវិតខ្ញុំ ឱ្យតែស្តាប់បង្គាប់នឹងធ្វើតាមខ្ញុំ។ ឯសម្តេចឪកាលមុននោះ ដោយទល់ច្រកមួយថ្ងៃៗរកតែគ្រូទាយទេ ក្រោយមកសម្តេចឪមានការ
ខ្មាស់អៀន ក៏សម្រេចចិត្តទៅ រស់នៅស្រុកចិនថា មើលជម្ងឺរបស់គាត់ទៅ។ តែខ្ញុំនៅតែគោរពគាត់ដូចមុន ដ៏ដែលព្រោះចៅហ្វាយខ្ញុំឥឡូវក៏ជាចៅហ្វាយគាត់ពីមុនមកដែរ។ ហើយសម្តេចឪបានប្រកាសគាំទ្រតេជោខ្ញុំលុះអវសាន្តនៃជីវិតគាត់។ ​គេចោទខ្ញុំថា ខ្ញុំយួន​ តែចំពោះខ្ញុំ វាល្អណាស់ ព្រោះខ្ញុំតេជោត្រួតមួយស្រុកខ្មែរឃើញទេ ហើយសម្តេចឪក៏នៅក្រោមល្អងធុលីតេជោដែរ។ នេះជានយោបាយឈ្នះៗរបស់ខ្ញុំ​ កុំខឹង​អី ជួយមិនបានទេ។ ហើយដីដែលយួនយកនោះមិនមែនដីម៉ែឪខ្ញុំឯណា គឺដីរបស់ប្រជាជននឹងគេរិ៍របស់សម្តេចចក្ក្រី​ ហេង សំរិន ទេ។ ឈប់រករឿងខ្ញុំទៀត បើចង់មកលេងស្រុកណា ខេអាយ។
សុភាព=បាទសម្តេច ​ក្នុងរយៈពេលកន្លងមក ឃើញមិនមានបញ្ហាអ្វីជាមួយយួនសោះ តែជាមួយសៀមដូចជាមានរឿងមិនចេះចប់ តើវា
តេជោ= នឹងបន្តរ

Anonymous said...

Dear Koun Khmer,

Thank you very much for taking your busy schedule to write about "Failed State" with very good references to reflect Cambodia as a "Failed State" as it is.

I can understand why some writers are defensive towards the criticism, because the truth is an ugly truth for them to accept. They can think and do what they like, but they cannot get away from the truth as they are being followed by its shadow. They can run of course, but they cannot hide from it. This is similar to the insects that love to play with light and eventually get kill by the heat or other predators.

Please carry on with your wonderful course of action to share and care for this long suffering and endurance motherland, Cambodia. She have been betrayed by her own son and daughters, who are too selfish, ungrateful, irresponsible and entwined with greed and power.
let us all be the children who feel her pain and suffering, unite to continue our struggle to save, protect and defend her from more harm and further destruction, especially on the anniversary of the 7th January when she was re-invaded by Vietnam under the consent of her own children, CPP.

Yeay Tep

Anonymous said...

Yeay Tep,

I'm happy to read you on this space. Why is it take you so long to get here? Were you still on New Year vacation?

Anyway as always, thanks for contributing your thought to Koun Khmer's are so rights about those sons and daughters that betray their motherland and selfishly sale their soul in the name of greed! This is very sad indeed.

Just hope that Koun Khmer still continue to provide with his well thought on topic that is a very critical issues to our Khmer nation!


Koun Khmer said...

Yeay Tep,

Let me join 10:53 PM in thanking you for your thoughtful comments and contribution to the forum.

Yes, I am here to stay. We have much more to cover. I am working on Elitism. I am not quite sure how to approach this topic yet, but I will make sure that the content will be appropriate for our discussion in this forum.

I am glad I could do something constructive for our motherland. I love her with all my heart.

Respectfully yours,

Koun Khmer

Anonymous said...

yes, my dear, the truth hurts! allow them room to cry their heart content, after ward, they will feel better when all that seratonin settled out of their system. be supportive and just provide paper tissue for them for crying. listen, observe, and show compassion.

Anonymous said...

Hey Koun Khmer,

If you write about elitist in Cambodia - make sure you have a lot of champagne by your side :~))So you can experience how the elitist spend their day :~) - just kidding! But by all mean, if champagne will make you write better - do it - why not:~)

What I think about the current elitist in Cambodia - they are lacking of moral responsibility, lacking manner, and too big of ego! When they walk - the sky look better than anybody walk in front of them. New Khmer rich - their children spend money like water ...drink too much, to many fast car, kill annocient people without responsibility...they are an untouchable people (of course not like the untouchable people in India - they are on the other side of spectrum).

Ok Koun Khmer - have a good writing - and will read you later!


Humbly, I remain

Koun Khmer said...

Thank you for your advice. The champagne will indeed do the trick. :) :)

Until then, have a wonderful day.

Your humble friend,

Koun Khmer

Anonymous said...

It is a complex issue that you have raised Neatee koun Khmer.

It is a failed state relative to the definition prescribed.In the case of sovereinty of Cambodia,RGC fails to protect from the East,locals and international communities are aware of that.
Corruption indicates that transparency is not a reality.
Along with the corruption,the abuse of power has been excercised to oppress and enforce mismanagement.
Fear is constant when talking about oppression and power abuses.
As result of these,basic human rights are ignored and citizens are suffered.

Relative to circumstances,Cambodia is not a failed state due to poor history and traumas that Cambodians have faced.

It all depends on the RGC human resources and attitude to courageously confront the issues and a real REFORM accepted and adapted.

The world is changing,the communists predominently focused on restriction and safety are changing.So does Cambodia needs a true reform to catch up with the rest of the changing world,in order to benefit from globalisation.Viet has done just that.And it is not safe to adopt the Vietnam's model.
RGC please do not fall into that trap. Cambodians can learn from the past.

Relevance to time,my view is that Cambodia survival relies on the real change and REFORM from state's management with an open mind.


Anonymous said...

So Peant,

If what you state "real change and REFORM from state's management" - what you imply is that it should change directly from within (the government)? How about those people that get into govt. lack of proper education to administrate and those that get in those positions are due to who they know, rather than what they know, or...relate through clant - which really tie to the last week discussion on "winning coalition" - How the "fail-state" maintain to stay in power! And the 'selectorate"...where they want to creat the winning coalition small so that the distribution of wealth not to be spread to thin! In addition, this kind of pratic had been exist event before the Lon Nol how are you going to bring above "real change from within" the administration that never fuction properly in the frist place? =====> which go back to strenghten the institution!

OK peasant - issues that Koun Khmer has brought up is difficult --- but reality event more difficult because one have to deal with human being that opperate in a dynamic system - not static!

So Peasant...any suggestion to Koun Khmer as to which issue that we should tackle first?


Anonymous said...


You are quite right about human resources and their selection crietrias of both public sector and private sector.

People's intellect,knowledge of each profession are ideal.But Ethics or morality is to be included in policy manuals where blame is no longer become individual's view but refect any mistake against policy manuals,as common practice.This is crucial as it is two way benefits.One is enhence individual performance accordingly and another is preventative measure from any power interference.
There are always rooms for human error, but re-enforcement/ education and praise are minimising undesirable outcome.
Limitation is to be within allowable framework,otherwise human always continues to exert
his/her uncontrolled power.

A systematic function implied to maintain smooth operation.And yes,laws and enforcement are NOT to be in hands of those in power but forced to exercise legitimately.

Social organisations and medias are to be free for criticism, to those abuse POWER.

King should also exercise his utmost duties prescribed in our constitution.

Most of all,our constitution is our common ground for national implementation.
And everyone is urged to fullfil his/her roles,otherwise the bound party,the UN can't no longer deny its crucial roles of agreement.

Hope these would respond to your question.

Thank you.


Anonymous said...


Thanks for your thoughtful answer, but if you look at the current opperation of Cambodian govt....their children now it the position to take over their parent position...just look at Mr. Sen's son --- that promote to two stars general! I am sure that there are others Koun Khmers that are qualifly for this position - (
not just education, but also experiences). There are others sons and daughters of high ranking official - which they are already in the govt. office and get pay by the govt., but they actually study 4-5 yrs abroad! This kind of practic are all over of the country! - Yes, institution is there, but how about implimentation? The govt. does not have a political will to implement it! - Just look at how much govt. budget go to military spending vs. educational spending for the mass....

Ok peasant - will discuse more next time,


KYEBC said...

Delegitimization of the state is explained as to invalidate the status of a recognizable sovereign state by inclining to live under other state by either brotherliness, ideologies or economic dependency. In this matter, we cannot come up with concrete explanation of Cambodia unless we have some back up references. And I think your next topic of Elitism or Indochina would light up this story.

Third is the public service. Frankly speaking, the public service basing on patron-clientele relationship will not produce any progressive. Some paper has found that patron-clientele relationship in most developing countries are becoming a base for social and political reforming and yes it has taken longer time and sometime it has significantly failed to reform for the a betterment. Cambodia has carried out the culture of patron-clientele since the era of Angkor Wat. It was effective in that time, but it is not effective in this time. The rule of law and law enforcement can surely replace the culture of patronage, patron-clientele bureaucracy, favoritism and cronyism.

All those three high scores of failed state of Cambodia implies well to the teaching of "liberation" by Buddha. Lord Buddha said liberty and self-realization is the ultimate goal for all beings. In contrast, Cambodian people has not yet been projected to release themselves from bondage of pressure, exploitation, abusing of power by the powerful, and poor public services.

For instance, Cambodian people have been exploited by their past traumatic memory of Khmer Rouge; Cambodian people have been counterfeited by the generosity (dana) donated by the elitists and powerful people; Cambodian people have been brainwashed to pay gratitude to others without having chance to balance their gratefulness and truthfulness; and Cambodian people have been poorly treated by the public services, and they have perpetually gone through the same tack of political conundrum.

Only one way to wake up our country to embrace the Enlightenment Era and update themselves to grab the current globalization is to "liberate" them from post-war trauma by handing them the space for free speech, allocating them by inventing neutral mass media, teaching the younger generations by the school of analytical thinking (not a parroting classroom), and all Buddhist monks have to learn on how to apply the Buddha's teachings with the current context of social changes and should not memorize those teachings and parroting them to the congregations etc.

I must end my thought now and I am delightful to your articles and all comments here.

Sincere Regards,